Check out example codes for "merge sort in c++". It will help you in understanding the concepts better.

Code Example 1

/* C program for Merge Sort */
#include<stdlib.h> 
#include<stdio.h> 
  
// Merges two subarrays of arr[]. 
// First subarray is arr[l..m] 
// Second subarray is arr[m+1..r] 
void merge(int arr[], int l, int m, int r) 
{ 
    int i, j, k; 
    int n1 = m - l + 1; 
    int n2 =  r - m; 
  
    /* create temp arrays */
    int L[n1], R[n2]; 
  
    /* Copy data to temp arrays L[] and R[] */
    for (i = 0; i < n1; i++) 
        L[i] = arr[l + i]; 
    for (j = 0; j < n2; j++) 
        R[j] = arr[m + 1+ j]; 
  
    /* Merge the temp arrays back into arr[l..r]*/
    i = 0; // Initial index of first subarray 
    j = 0; // Initial index of second subarray 
    k = l; // Initial index of merged subarray 
    while (i < n1 && j < n2) 
    { 
        if (L[i] <= R[j]) 
        { 
            arr[k] = L[i]; 
            i++; 
        } 
        else
        { 
            arr[k] = R[j]; 
            j++; 
        } 
        k++; 
    } 
  
    /* Copy the remaining elements of L[], if there 
       are any */
    while (i < n1) 
    { 
        arr[k] = L[i]; 
        i++; 
        k++; 
    } 
  
    /* Copy the remaining elements of R[], if there 
       are any */
    while (j < n2) 
    { 
        arr[k] = R[j]; 
        j++; 
        k++; 
    } 
} 
  
/* l is for left index and r is right index of the 
   sub-array of arr to be sorted */
void mergeSort(int arr[], int l, int r) 
{ 
    if (l < r) 
    { 
        // Same as (l+r)/2, but avoids overflow for 
        // large l and h 
        int m = l+(r-l)/2; 
  
        // Sort first and second halves 
        mergeSort(arr, l, m); 
        mergeSort(arr, m+1, r); 
  
        merge(arr, l, m, r); 
    } 
} 
  
/* UTILITY FUNCTIONS */
/* Function to print an array */
void printArray(int A[], int size) 
{ 
    int i; 
    for (i=0; i < size; i++) 
        printf("%d ", A[i]); 
    printf("\n"); 
} 
  
/* Driver program to test above functions */
int main() 
{ 
    int arr[] = {12, 11, 13, 5, 6, 7}; 
    int arr_size = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]); 
  
    printf("Given array is \n"); 
    printArray(arr, arr_size); 
  
    mergeSort(arr, 0, arr_size - 1); 
  
    printf("\nSorted array is \n"); 
    printArray(arr, arr_size); 
    return 0; 
}

Code Example 2

# Python program for implementation of MergeSort 
def mergeSort(arr): 
    if len(arr) >1: 
        mid = len(arr)//2 #Finding the mid of the array 
        L = arr[:mid] # Dividing the array elements  
        R = arr[mid:] # into 2 halves 
  
        mergeSort(L) # Sorting the first half 
        mergeSort(R) # Sorting the second half 
  
        i = j = k = 0
          
        # Copy data to temp arrays L[] and R[] 
        while i < len(L) and j < len(R): 
            if L[i] < R[j]: 
                arr[k] = L[i] 
                i+=1
            else: 
                arr[k] = R[j] 
                j+=1
            k+=1
          
        # Checking if any element was left 
        while i < len(L): 
            arr[k] = L[i] 
            i+=1
            k+=1
          
        while j < len(R): 
            arr[k] = R[j] 
            j+=1
            k+=1
  
# Code to print the list 
def printList(arr): 
    for i in range(len(arr)):         
        print(arr[i],end=" ") 
    print() 
  
# driver code to test the above code 
if __name__ == '__main__': 
    arr = [12, 11, 13, 5, 6, 7]  
    print ("Given array is", end="\n")  
    printList(arr) 
    mergeSort(arr) 
    print("Sorted array is: ", end="\n") 
    printList(arr) 
  
# This code is contributed by Mayank Khanna

Code Example 3

// @see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=es2T6KY45cA&vl=en
// @see https://www.cs.usfca.edu/~galles/visualization/ComparisonSort.html

function merge(list, start, midpoint, end) {
    const left = list.slice(start, midpoint);
    const right = list.slice(midpoint, end);
    for (let topLeft = 0, topRight = 0, i = start; i < end; i += 1) {
        if (topLeft >= left.length) {
            list[i] = right[topRight++];
        } else if (topRight >= right.length) {
            list[i] = left[topLeft++];
        } else if (left[topLeft] < right[topRight]) {
            list[i] = left[topLeft++];
        } else {
            list[i] = right[topRight++];
        }
    }
}

function mergesort(list, start = 0, end = undefined) {
    if (end === undefined) {
        end = list.length;
    }
    if (end - start > 1) {
        const midpoint = ((end + start) / 2) >> 0;
        mergesort(list, start, midpoint);
        mergesort(list, midpoint, end);
        merge(list, start, midpoint, end);
    }
    return list;
}

mergesort([4, 7, 2, 6, 4, 1, 8, 3]);

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