Check out example codes for "modular exponentiation c++". It will help you in understanding the concepts better.

Code Example 1

/**
* Calculate a^n in O(logn) time, instead of O(n) time with naive approach.
**/
public static long powerRecursive(int base, int exponent){
  if(exponent == 0) return 1;
  return (exponent % 2 == 0) ?
    powerRecursive(base, exponent / 2) * powerRecursive(base, exponent / 2)
    : base * powerRecursive(base, (exponent - 1) / 2) *
      powerRecursive(base, (exponent - 1) / 2);
}

Code Example 2

// Iterative C++ program to compute modular power  
#include <iostream> 
using namespace std; 
  
/* Iterative Function to calculate (x^y)%p in O(log y) */
int power(int x, unsigned int y, int p)  
{  
    int res = 1;     // Initialize result  
  
    x = x % p; // Update x if it is more than or  
                // equal to p 
   
    if (x == 0) return 0; // In case x is divisible by p; 
  
    while (y > 0)  
    {  
        // If y is odd, multiply x with result  
        if (y & 1)  
            res = (res*x) % p;  
  
        // y must be even now  
        y = y>>1; // y = y/2  
        x = (x*x) % p;  
    }  
    return res;  
}  
  
// Driver code  
int main()  
{  
    int x = 2;  
    int y = 5;  
    int p = 13;  
    cout << "Power is " << power(x, y, p);  
    return 0;  
}  
  
// This code is contributed by shubhamsingh10

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