Check out example codes for "r difference between <- and =". It will help you in understanding the concepts better.
Code Example 1
# Short answer: # Both can be used for assignment and function similarly most of the time # Longer answer: # In R’s syntax the symbol = has two distinct meanings that frequently # get conflated. They are: 1. The first meaning of = is as an assignment operator 2. The second meaning of = is as a syntax token that signals named argument passing in a function call. Unlike the = operator it performs no action at runtime, it merely changes the way an expression is parsed # With regards to assignment, the only difference is their operator # precedence. Operator precedence priority goes from top to bottom: -> or ->> assignment (left to right) # Weirdness <- or <<- assignment (right to left) = assignment (right to left) # With regards to named argument passing, the main thing to know is that # = was designed to be used at the top level, meaning outside of # subexpressions such as if statements or functions. However, you can # get around this by adding an extra set of parentheses when you use = # For example: # If x is undefined and you use it in a function like this, you will get # an error: median(x = 1:10) # But, both of these syntaxes work: median((x = 1:10)) median(x <- 1:10) # If you're getting errors like these, you are probably not following # this advice Error: unexpected '=' in <blah> or Error in <blah> : argument <blah> is missing, with no default
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