Check out example codes for "alter table add column and foreign key mysql". It will help you in understanding the concepts better.

Code Example 1

# A foreign key is essentially a reference to a primary
# key in another table.

# A Simple table of Users, 
CREATE TABLE users(
	userId INT NOT NULL,
  	username VARCHAR(64) NOT NULL,
  	passwd VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL,
  	PRIMARY KEY(userId);
);
# Lets add a LEGIT user!
INSERT INTO users VALUES(1000,"Terry","Teabagface$2");

# We will create an order table that holds a reference
# to an order made by our Terry
CREATE TABLE orders(
	orderId INT NOT NULL,
  	orderDescription VARCHAR(255),
  	ordererId INT NOT NULL,
  	PRIMARY KEY(orderId),
  	FOREIGN KEY (ordererId) REFERENCES users(userId)
);
# Now we can add an order from Terry
INSERT INTO orders VALUES(0001,"Goat p0rn Weekly",1000);

# Want to know more about the plight of Goats?
# See the link below

Code Example 2

-- On Create
CREATE TABLE tableName (
    ID INT,
    SomeEntityID INT,
    PRIMARY KEY (ID),
    FOREIGN KEY (SomeEntityID)
        REFERENCES SomeEntityTable(ID)
        ON DELETE CASCADE
);

-- On Alter, if the column already exists but has no FK
ALTER TABLE
  tableName
ADD
  FOREIGN KEY (SomeEntityID) REFERENCES SomeEntityTable(ID) ON DELETE CASCADE;

Code Example 3

ALTER TABLE database.table
  ADD COLUMN columnname INT DEFAULT(1),
  ADD FOREIGN KEY fk_name(fk_column) REFERENCES reftable(refcolumn) ON DELETE CASCADE;

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