Check out example codes for "mysql illegal mix of collations for operation 'join'". It will help you in understanding the concepts better.

Code Example 1

SELECT table_schema, table_name, column_name, character_set_name, collation_name
FROM information_schema.columns
WHERE collation_name = 'latin1_general_ci'
ORDER BY table_schema, table_name,ordinal_position; 

ALTER TABLE tbl_name CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE 'latin1_swedish_ci'

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