Check out example codes for "sql all columns". It will help you in understanding the concepts better.

Code Example 1

-- MySQL
SELECT * 
FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS;

-- SQL Server (possible solution)
SELECT * 
FROM SYS.COLUMNS;

-- Oracle
SELECT * 
FROM ALL_TAB_COLS; -- (If you only want user-defined columns)
-- ALL_TAB_COLS : only user-defined columns
-- ALL_TAB_COLUMNS : both user-defined AND system columns

Code Example 2

SHOW COLUMNS FROM [table name];
DESCRIBE [table name];

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