Check out example codes for "sql server rename mdf file". It will help you in understanding the concepts better.

Code Example 1

USE [master];
GO

ALTER DATABASE QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG SET SINGLE_USER WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE
GO

ALTER DATABASE QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG SET OFFLINE
GO

ALTER DATABASE QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG MODIFY FILE (Name='QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG', FILENAME='C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG.mdf')
GO

ALTER DATABASE QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG MODIFY FILE (Name='QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG_log', FILENAME='C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL13.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG_log.ldf')
GO

ALTER DATABASE QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG SET ONLINE
GO

ALTER DATABASE QuestelServicesDirectValidation_ORIG SET MULTI_USER
GO

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